The concept behind biodynamics is that everything in the universe is interconnected and gives off a resonance or ‘vibe’. The interconnectivity of everything even includes celestial bodies like the moon, planets and stars. Biodynamic viticulture is the practice of balancing this resonance between vine, man, earth and stars. Essentially, biodynamics is a holistic view of agriculture.
Biodynamic Agriculture is Almost a Century Old
The concept of Biodynamics started in the 1920’s with an Austrian philosopher named Rudolph Steiner. It is a holistic, homeopathic manner of farming that, of course, also includes viticulture. It is the oldest, anti-chemical agricultural movement that predates the creation of organic farming by about twenty years.
If you think about it, there’s not really anything ‘new’ behind the theory of biodynamics. Mankind has looked to the celestial sky for guidance from the ancient Greeks and Egyptians all the way to the trusty ‘Farmer’s Almanac’ which is the bible of traditional American farming.
The ‘Demeter’ symbol represents one of only two Biodynamic Certifications in the world.
Biodynamics occur primarily in the vineyard before winemaking even happens. All the various tasks, from planting, pruning, to harvesting, are regulated by a special biodynamic calendar. The calendar was originally devised by the ‘high priestess’ of Biodynamics, Maria Thun, who divided days into four categories: Root, Fruit, Flower and Leaf Days.
Each biodynamic calendar day coincides with one of the four classical elements of Earth, Fire, Air and Water that have been used since before Plato’s era:
You would never, for example, want to harvest on a Leaf Day because Leaf Days correlate with the Element water and you’d end up picking rotten, waterlogged grapes!
Besides the biodynamic calendar, no chemicals or ‘manufactured’ additions (like commercial yeast) are allowed in biodynamic wine. Instead, wine growers make special compost preparations with natural ingredients to bolster their vineyards. This is where things start to get controversial.
CONTAINS SULFITES: Certified biodynamic wines contain up to 100 PPM sulfites
Biodynamic wines must be certified. The strict rules and regulations are overseen by 2 governing bodies:
No. Although a few biodynamic producers make a different style of wine that focuses more on the ‘Secondary Flavors’ (ie yeast flavors). However, you might be surprised to recognize a few of these famous wine producers who make Biodynamic wine and they do not taste any differently than what you might already be used to:
TIP: There are just over 620 biodynamic wine producers in the world
You can find biodynamic wines in United States, France, Germany, Spain, Italy, Eastern Europe, Chile, Argentina, India and Australia. Those who believe in the philosophy think that the wines are more characteristic to the ‘terroir’ where they originate. The wines are often described as balanced and age equally as long as ‘standard’ wines.
“Cow horns are stuffed with special compost preparations. After being buried for a time, the contents are used to make a ‘tea’ for fertilizing the vineyard.”
True biodynamic farming will actually make vegetarians cringe. Biodynamic viticulture requires special compost preparations that are stuffed into cow horns and buried in the soil. Later, the cow horns are dug up and reused and the ’stuffing’ is distributed throughout the vineyard.
Many believe the practice of biodynamic composting pseudoscience. Regardless, the historical precedence perhaps explains why cow horns are used: the animal horn is a symbol of abundance. For example, the Vikings believed that water drunk from a horn contained life enhancing properties. Today, this belief proliferates in Chinese traditional medicine (e.g. Rhino horn) and even the ‘cornucopia’ of American Thanksgiving.
There are nine compost preparations used in Biodynamic farming which include everything from manure and cow horns to yarrow blossoms (mentioned in Homer’s Illiad for treating wounds), chamomile (a natural antiseptic) and stinging nettles (a natural cleanser). Of course, there is no serious evidence on whether or not cow horns are a truly necessary component in what is ultimately a dedicated organic gardening process.
FACT: Biodynamic soils have been tested against non-organic soils and they showed greater disease suppression, a decrease in compaction and added organic material.